Connecticut Content Standard 8: Water

Students will understand the water cycle, including energy transfers, the distribution and characteristics of water, and its influences on human activity.

Grades K - 4

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

  • recognize (in Grades K-2) that water can exist as a solid, liquid or gas and can be changed from one form to the other;
  • recognize (in Grades K-2) that water on Earth exists in different forms (e.g., rain, snow, ice, surface water);
    recognize (in Grades K-2) that plants and animals need water to live;
  • recognize that water can exist as a gas in the air and can reappear as a liquid, if cooled, or as a solid, if cooled below the freezing point of water;
  • recognize that three-fourths of the Earth’s surface is covered by water;
  • identify major sources of water (e.g., oceans, glaciers, rivers, groundwater, atmosphere);
  • recognize the importance and uses of water (e.g., drinking, washing, irrigating); and
  • recognize that water is essential to life.

Grades 5 - 8

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

  • recognize how the cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in deter-mining climatic patterns and is responsible for constantly changing the phase and location of water;
  • recognize that water falling to Earth flows over the surface as runoff and collects in ocean basins, rivers, lakes, icecaps and underground; and
  • recognize that water stored underground (subsurface) and water stored above ground (surface) form a continuum, each supplying water to the other.

Grades 9 - 12

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

  • recognize that the ocean is a complex system of important chemicals which cycle through other Earth systems over various periods of time;
  • recognize that fresh water is limited in supply and can be depleted or polluted, becoming unavailable or unsuitable for life;
  • explain interactions between water and other Earth systems (e.g., the biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere);
  • recognize that water is an erosional force that can rapidly and slowly change the landscape;
  • describe how the oceans absorb and release heat energy that moderates the Earth’s climate; and
  • describe how the physical and chemical properties of water affect the environment and life.


The following GEMS Guides address this Standard:

Bubble Festival
Grades K-6

Involving Dissolving
Grades PreK-4

Liquid Explorations
Grades PreK-3

On Sandy Shores Grades 1-6

Aquatic Habitats
Grades 2-6

Grades 5-8

Environmental Detectives
Grades 5-8

Acid Rain
Grades 6-8

Convection: A Current Event
Grades 6-8

River Cutters
Grades 6-8

Global Warming and the Greenhhouse Effect
Grades 7-8

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