Connecticut Content Standard 13: Interaction Of Matter And Energy

Students will know that interactions between matter and energy can produce changes in a system, although the total quantities of matter and energy are unchanged.

Grades K - 4

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

  • demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that the position or motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling;
  • recognize (in Grades K-2) that the motion of objects can be compared by describing the general direction or type of motion (straight line, zigzag, vibrating or circular) and the relative speed;
  • demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that magnets can move some objects without touching them;
  • recognize (in Grades K-2) that magnets attract or repel each other and attract a few kinds of metals;
  • demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that objects fall to the ground unless supported;
  • give examples of some forces (e.g., magnetism, gravity) that can change the motion of objects without touching them;
  • recognize that the motion of an object can be de-scribed as a change in the position of the object with respect to another object or background; and
  • demonstrate that magnetic and electrostatic forces may both attract and repel.

Grades 5 - 8

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

  • identify evidence that waves (e.g., light, sound, radiant) can transfer energy between two points;
  • demonstrate that objects have inertia and momentum;
  • recognize that the motion of one object can be de-scribed by measuring its position, direction and speed relative to another object;
  • illustrate that changes in the speed and direction of an object are due to forces which have magnitude and direction;
  • recognize that electric currents and magnets can exert a force on each other; and
  • understand that a complete circuit is necessary in order for electric current to flow.

Grades 9 - 12

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

  • explain how the interactions between various energy forms and matter can produce physical, chemical and nuclear transformations;
  • observe, measure and represent mathematically the changes in the various energy forms taking place during the physical and chemical transformation of substances;
  • describe how energy changes can be related to structural processes and modifications at the atomic and molecular levels;
  • recognize that energy changes in atoms and molecules occur in fixed increments;
  • recognize that energy and new particles are released when the nuclei of heavy atoms (e.g., uranium, plutonium) split;
  • explain how radiation and matter interact in terms of the absorption and emission of energy by individual atoms, molecules and their aggregates;
  • recognize that waves may interact with the materials they enter;
  • recognize the types of radiation (e.g., light, radio, microwave, X-ray) which comprise the electromagnetic spectrum;
  • understand the differences in the flow of electrical energy in conductors, semi-conductors and insulators; and
  • recognize that accelerating electrical charges produce electromagnetic waves.


The following GEMS Guides address this Standard:

Liquid Explorations
Grades 1-3

Secret Formulas Grades 1-3

Mystery Festival Grades 2-8

Crime Lab Chemistry
Grades 4-8

Grades 4-8

Microscopic Explorations
Grades 4-8

Of Cabbages and Chemistry
Grades 4-8

Oobleck: What Do Scientists Do?
Grades 4-8

Vitamin C Testing
Grades 4-8

Grades 5-8

Paper Towel Testing
Grades 5-8

Acid Rain
Grades 6-8

Chemical Reactions
Grades 6-8

Discovering Density
Grades 6-8

Dry Ice Investigations
Grades 6-8

Invisible Universe
Grades 6-8

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